Expanding Physical Infrastructure
The core of any IoT infrastructure involves deploying sensors and communication technologies that can connect various devices to the Internet. This requires setting up an expanded physical infrastructure comprising of:
Sensors - A diverse range of low-cost sensors are being embedded in various products to convert physical parameters like temperature, motion, speed etc. into digital data. Advanced MEMS and nanotechnology is enabling the development of miniature multi-functional sensors.
Network Technologies - Both wireless and wired network technologies are playing an important role inIoT. Short-range wireless technologies like Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Zigbee are widely used for device-to-device connectivity within local networks. Meanwhile, cellular technologies like 3G, 4G, 5G provide wider area connectivity for long-range IoT applications. Optical fiber networks and low-power wide area networks also support IoT connectivity requirements.
Edge and Fog Computing - With billions of IoT devices generating huge volumes of data, edge and fog computing helps process data closer to the source of data generation before uploading to the cloud. This reduces bandwidth usage and latency for applications requiring real-time data analysis.
The exponential growth in the number of connected IoT devices means service providers must scale up network capacities and edge infrastructure worldwide to support this massive scale of interconnected devices. This involves deploying more telecom towers, small cells, routers, switches, data centers and connecting them using high-bandwidth networks.
Data Integration and Analytics Platforms
Once devices are connected, the real value from IoT emerges from the ability to integrate massive streams of data from diverse sources and gain insights by applying analytics. This requires:
IoT Platforms - Central IoT platforms are key to support device management, connectivity, data ingestion, storage and integration from various sources onto a common system. Major cloud providers like AWS, Microsoft Azure and IBM offer full-fledged IoT platforms.
Data Storage - With estimates of Iot Infrastructure data reaching 79.4 zettabytes by 2025, secure, scalable and cost-effective storage solutions like cloud storage and purpose-built NoSQL databases are becoming essential to support such exabytes of data.
Analytics Tools - A range of tools including SQL, NoSQL, stream processing, machine learning, deep learning and AI are leveraged to analyze real-time and historical IoT data to derive insights, identify patterns, enable forecasting, detect anomalies and optimize processes.
The ultimate goal is to develop smart interconnected systems and applications which can address challenges across sectors including:
Smart Cities - Applications for infrastructure management, transportation, public safety, environmental monitoring help improve resource use and quality of life.
Smart Manufacturing - Connected industrial assets, tools and equipment improve operational efficiency, productivity and maintenance through predictive quality control in factories.
Connected Healthcare - Remote patient monitoring, medication management, emergency response solutions and diagnostics from medical devices improve outcomes and access to care.
Smart Energy - Two-way communication between utilities and grid-connected appliances/equipment enables demand response programs, automated metering and better management of renewable energy resources.
Agriculture - Sensor-based irrigation, soil monitoring, equipment automation help boost crop yields while optimizing use of water, fertilizers and fuels in agriculture.
Explore more information on this topic, Please visit-